It is necessary to have some knowledge about the anatomy of the tooth in order to understand endodontic treatment. The outermost layer of the tooth is called enamel, the hard layer below it is called dentin, and the innermost soft layer is called pulp.

The pulp contains blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue. When the pulp of the tooth is infected, root canal treatment is performed. In the past, teeth were extracted in case of general damage to the soft tooth layer. However, with the canal treatment applied to teeth in today’s technology, tooth extraction is no longer the only solution. You can recognize that you need a root canal treatment if you have prolonged sensitivity to hot and cold, discoloration of the tooth, pain when chewing or inability to chew comfortably, or spontaneous pain, especially at night. All dentists learn the basic principles and practice of root canal treatment. However, dentists usually refer their patients to an endodontist who specializes in root canal treatment. Endodontists’ treatment interventions are completely limited to root canal treatment and the cases related to this treatment. With the developing technology, various new methods and instruments are now available in root canal treatment. Especially rotary instrument systems and devices called apex locators are used to clean the infected root canal. In this way, root canals can be cleaned more effectively. Digital radiography systems are used during root canal treatment, which reduces the radiation dose received by patients by 70%.

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